Automobile Industry India

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Indian Automobile Industry is manufacturing over 11 million vehicles and exporting about 1.5 million every year. The dominant products of the industry are two wheelers with a market share of over 75% and passenger cars with a market share of about 16%. Commercial vehicles and three wheelers share about 9% of the market between them. About 91% of the vehicles sold are used by households and only about 9% for commercial purposes. The industry has attained a turnover of more than USD 35 billion and provides direct and indirect employment to over 13 million people.

The supply chain of this industry in India is very similar to the supply chain of the automotive industry in Europe and America. This may present its own set of opportunities and threats. The orders of the industry arise from the bottom of the supply chain i. e., from the consumers and goes through the automakers and climbs up until the third tier suppliers. However the products, as channeled in every traditional automotive industry, flow from the top of the supply chain to reach the consumers.

Interestingly, the level of trade exports in this sector in India has been medium and imports have been low. However, this is rapidly changing and both exports and imports are increasing. The demand determinants of the industry are factors like affordability, product innovation, infrastructure and price of fuel. Also, the basis of competition in the sector is high and increasing and the life cycle stage is growth. With a rapidly growing middle class, all the advantages of this sector in India are yet to be leveraged.

Note that, with a high cost of developing production facilities, limited accessibility to new technology and soaring competition, the barriers to enter the Indian Automotive sector are high and these barriers are steady. On the other hand, India has a well-developed tax structure. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three tiers of Government. The cost structure of the industry is fairly traditional, but the profitability of motor vehicle manufacturers has been rising over the past five years. Major players, like Tata Motors and Maruti Suzuki have material cost of about 80% but are recording profits after tax of about 6% to 11%.

The level of technology change in the Motor vehicle Industry has been high but, the rate of change in technology has been medium.  Investment in the technology by the producers has been high. System-suppliers of integrated components and sub-systems have become the order of the day. However, further investment in new technologies will help the industry be more competitive. Over the past few years, the industry has been volatile. Currently, India’s increasing per capital disposable income which is expected to rise by 106% by 2015 and growth in exports is playing a major role in the rise and competitiveness of the industry.

Tata Motors is leading the commercial vehicle segment with a market share of about 64%. Maruti Suzuki is leading the passenger vehicle segment with a market share of 46%. Hyundai Motor India and Mahindra and Mahindra are focusing expanding their footprint in the overseas market. Hero Honda Motors is occupying over 41% and sharing 26% of the two wheeler market in India with Bajaj Auto. Bajaj Auto in itself is occupying about 58% of the three wheeler market.

Consumers are very important for the survival of the Motor Vehicle manufacturing industry. In 2008-09, customer sentiment dropped, which burned on the augmentation in demand of cars. Steel is the major input used by manufacturers and the rise in price of steel is putting a cost pressure on manufacturers and cost is getting transferred to the end consumer. The price of oil and petrol affect the driving habits of consumers and the type of car they buy.

The key to success in the industry is to improve labour productivity, labour flexibility and capital efficiency. Having quality manpower, infrastructure improvements and raw material availability also play a major role. Access to latest and most efficient technology and techniques will bring competitive advantage to the major players. Utilising manufacturing plants to optimum level and understanding implications from the government policies are the essentials in the Automotive Industry of India.

Both, Industry and Indian Government are obligated to intervene the Indian Automotive industry. The Indian government should facilitate infrastructure creation, create favourable and predictable business environment, attract investment and promote research and development. The role of Industry will primarily be in designing and manufacturing products of world-class quality establishing cost competitiveness and improving productivity in labour and in capital. With a combined effort, the Indian Automotive industry will emerge as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacturing of automobiles.

 


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